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History of the Microscope

ancient times
From ancient times, man has wanted to see things far smaller than could be perceived with the naked eye.
single convex lens
This led to the construction, in the 16th century, of a magnifier composed of a single convex lens, and this, in turn, led to the eventual development of the microscope.
Digges of England
Perhaps the most famous early pioneers in the history of the microscope are Digges of England and Hans and Zcharias Janssen of Holland
Antony van Leeuwenhoek

But it was Antony van Leeuwenhoek who became the first man to make and use a real microscope.

Leeuwenhoek ground and polished a small glass ball into a lens with a magnification of 270X, and used this lens to make the world's first practical microscope.

Leeuwenhoek's microscope
Because it had only one lens, Leeuwenhoek's microscope is now referred to as a single-lens microscope. Its convex glass lens was attached to a metal holder and was focused using screws.
bellanimalcules and spermatoza
After his historic invention, Leeuwenhoek continued to devote himself to studies base on the microscope. His discoveries included bacteria, bellanimalcules and spermatoza. Leeuwenhoek actually constructed a total of 400 microscopes during his prolific lifetime.

The magnification ratio of a single-lens microscope like the one invented by Leeuwenhoek is calculated in the same way as calculations are made for a simple magnifying glass.

250mm--accepted to be the distance of most distinct vision--is divided by the length of the lens.

single-lens microscope
To increase the power of a single-lens microscope, the focal length has to be reduced. However, a reduction in focal length necessitates a reduction of the lens diameter, and after a point, the lens becomes difficult to see through.
microscope system
To solve this problem, the compound microscope system was invented in the seventeenth century. This type of microscope incorporates more than one lens so that the image magnified by one lens can be further magnified by another.
compound microscope
Today, the term "microscope" is generally used to refer to this type of compound microscope.
In the compound microscope, the lens closer to the object to be viewed is refers to as the "objective", while the lens closer to the eye is called the "eyepiece".
Englishman Robert Hooke
Since its invention, the compound microscope has made tremendous contributions to the progress of science. Using a compound microscope that he had built himself, the 17th-century Englishman Robert Hooke discovered the fact that living things are composed of cells.
Eberthella Thyphosa
In the medical world, Louis Pasteur of France used a compound microscope to discover yeast fungus, while Karl J. Ebert, a German bacteriologist, employed a compound microscope in his discovery of Eberthella Thyphosa.
tubercle and cholera bacilli
It was also a compound microscope that Robert Koch discover tubercle and cholera bacilli.
Ernst Abbe
The 19th century saw dramatic progress in the development of the microscope, thanks to the contributions of such great minds as Carl Zeiss, who devoted significant effort to the manufacture of microscopes, Ernst Abbe, who carried out a theoretical study of optical principles, and Otto Schott, who conducted research on optical glass.